Manual Assessing Impairment: From Theory to Practice

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Our Partners. Movement is controlled by stimulus-response.

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Reflexes are basis for movement - Reflexes are combined into actions that create behavior. Movement emerges to control degrees of freedom. Patterns of movements self-organize within the characteristics of environmental conditions and the existing body systems of the individual. Functional synergies are developed naturally through practice and experience and help solve the problem of coordinating multiple muscles and joint movements at once.

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De-emphasize commands from CNS in controlling movement and emphasize physical explanations for movement. Movement is an emergent property from the interaction of multiple elements. Velocity- important for dynamics of movement.

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May be good to encourage faster movement in patients to produce momentum and therefore help weak patients move with greater ease. Cortical centers control movement in a top-down manner throughout the nervous system. Closed-loop Mode: Sensory feedback is needed and used to control the movement.

Reflexive movements dominate only after CNS damage. Adaptive, exible motor programs MPs and generalized motor programs GMPs exist to control actions that have common characteristics. Higher-level Motor Programs - Store rules for generating movements. Abnormal Movement - Not just reflexive, also including abnormalities in central pattern generators or higher level motor programs. The person, the task, and the environment interact to in uence motor behavior and learning.

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The interaction of the person with any given environment provides perceptual information used to control movement. The motivation to solve problems to accomplish a desired movement task goal facilitates learning. Multiple body systems overlap to activate synergies for the production of movements that are organized around functional goals.

Considers interaction of the person with the environment. Goal-directed Behavior - Task Orientated. Needs to be accurate! Patient learns to distinguish relevant perceptual cues important to action. Movements are slow, inconsistent and inefficient. Considerable cognitive activity is required.

Attention to understand what must move to produce a specific result. Large parts of the movement are controlled consciously. Movements are more fluid, reliable and efficient Less cognitive activity is required. Some parts of the movements are controlled consciously, some automatically. Inferring the intentions of others 6. Differentiating fact and fiction.

Due to these deficits, explicit teaching regarding how to understand the emotions of others and how to problem solve in social situations is a necessity. Strategies such as visuals, role-play, or social narratives to remind individuals with ASD about emotional states or appropriate behaviors can be useful. In addition, parents and teachers working with individuals on the spectrum should be careful not to place blame on behaviors that have repercussions that are not fully understood by that child or adult. Consider explaining how behaviors impact others or make others feel before reprimanding.

The WCC theory suggests that individuals on the spectrum struggle to incorporate information at different levels, and as a result, fail to integrate detail into global entities Frith, For example, this would explain why individuals with autism quite frequently develop very strong skills in math or science, but have difficulty grasping the gist of a story. Fixation on details 2.

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Reading comprehension 3. Literal thinking i. Generalizing information learned to different domains. It is also important to remember that this type of thinking can be beneficial and results in several strengths as well.

For example, individuals with ASD can be very detail oriented and may have the ability to focus intently for extended periods of time. Using these skills in functional tasks can showcase their strengths. In addition, the WCC theory has been linked to strong visual processing. Individuals with ASD will be able to take in a great deal of information when it is presented visually as opposed to other formats. An additional theory that explains the deficits in ASD is the executive functioning disorder hypothesis, or what some refer to as the complex information processing theory.

Pennington and Ozonoff proposed the executive dysfunction theory of autism when they observed that individuals with ASD struggled in complex tasks involving abstract concepts such as reasoning and planning. This theory has been expanded using neuropsychological tests. Researchers have generally observed that individuals with ASD struggle more than their peers when their brain needs to process more information at once. Minshew and Goldstein found that as the complexity of tasks were increased, individuals with autism were more impaired than those without autism.

Assessing Impairment: From Theory to Practice | The Mason Spirit | George Mason University

Children and adults with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD often have impaired executive functioning, as well. A deficit in executive functioning means that children with ASD may struggle in the following areas:. Planning ahead, preparing for the next activity 2. Keeping things organized 3. Following multi-step directions 4.

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Combining information from several sources to problem solve. Any individual that is struggling with executive functioning will require a lot of environmental support to be successful.

This includes daily planners, checklists, and homework logs between teachers and parents to keep kids organized and to support homework completion. Also, a posted schedule at home or in the classroom is very important. In addition, be sure to allow extra time for students to process directions, supply directions one step at a time, or repeat directions as needed.

Implications for the assessment of psychiatric disabilities

Baron-Cohen, S. Theory of mind and autism: A fifteen year review. Corbalis and S.

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Lea Eds. Child Development, 6, — Minshew, N. Autism as a disorder of complex information processing.